Beautiful sculptures were made during the 18th, 19th and 20th century. Traditionally, the sculptures were made of (baked) clay, stone and wood. Later bronze and metal alloys were added. The casting of the sculptures made it possible to produce a single 10-piece or 10-piece model, sometimes 100 pieces. In the 20th century, the plastic process was introduces, which allowed sculptures to be poured in a very cheap way, for example, in cast iron. This also increased the volume, sometimes up to 1000 pieces! In the 19th century, especially in France, a casting technique of a tin-lead-zinc alloy developed, which subsequently became “bronze”. These sculptures really seemed like bronze, but were so much cheaper to make!
My studio has over the years been broadly oriented towards the correct restoration of all these different materials.